MARIFE A. RIVAS
Sixto Babao Elementary School
This action research project was conducted to improve the reading skills using the WBD strategies. The respondents were the 60 pupils of grade two enrolled during the school year 2015-2016 at Sixto Babao Elementary School. Random sampling was employed in selecting pupils-respondents of the study.Post test scores were tabulated and analyzed using the mean and standard deviation one way ANOVA,Tukey HSD and Eta² test. Therefore, WBD is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School,Tibungco District.
Reading is essential for a child’s success. All too often, the barriers faced by children with difficulty reading outweigh their desire to read and without proper guidance they never overcome them. Learning to read is a sequential process each new skill builds on the mastery of previously learned skills. Children learn to break down words into their most basic sounds in a process called decoding. Later they begin to comprehend the meaning of word, sentences, and ultimately entire passages of text. However, it is a reality that in our grade level, although there are fast learners and good readers, we found out that many of our children have problems learning to read specifically the consonant clusters. They have a great deal of difficulty learning the combination of sounds heard in clusters.
The schema theory on reading as cited in the book Theory and Practice in Language Studies is an explanation of how readers use prior knowledge to comprehend and learn from text. According to schema theory, comprehending a text is an interactive process between the reader’s background knowledge and the text. The fundamental tenet of schema theory assumes that written text does not carry meaning by itself. Rather, a text only provides directions for readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previous knowledge.
According to Massaro (2015) reading takes you beyond the easy way to communicate. It takes you another world and challenges you. While many students learn to read at expected levels and rates of learning, some students do not make expected progress despite teaching specifically in learning the clusters. The problem is probably rooted in phonemic awareness. They have difficulty separating the second sound in the cluster from the first.
De Dios (2015) on the other hand stated that learning to read is an essential part of basic education. Reading after all is an important gateway to the other disciplines. Moreover, for Selangan (2015) reading is a basic skill which should not be compromised in a humane society. Reading instruction should be given emphasis. In this age of information where orality is not enough to communicate to the whole world anymore, quality reading instruction among public schools should be a top priority.
In the school, the grade two teachers based on their assessment among their pupils found that most of the pupils have great difficulty in reading consonant clusters. This can be attributed to the fact that in the first grade they are much exposed to the Mother Tongue language which is present in almost all the subjects. Oral communication in English was only introduced at the second semester. Probably because of this factor, most of the pupils have difficulty in reading consonant clusters. The researcher, in her desire to help struggling readers, prompted to think of strategies she believe that would be very helpful to the children.
This study aims to find out the effectiveness of WBD strategies in improving the reading skills among the grade two pupils. Specifically, it sought to find out the answers to the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed to the WBD?
2. What is the level of performance of students in reading consonant clusters?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of students in reading consonant clusters when exposed to the WBD?
4. Is there a significant difference in the WBD associated with the difference in the performance of students in reading consonant clusters?
5. What is the effect size of the WBD to the performance of reading consonant clusters?
For clarity purposes, the following terms were defined operationally:
Word Hunt-Students will be given a piece of short story with consonant clusters. They will be finding consonant clusters from the story and write them on a piece of paper. They will be reading these words by pair. They will be finding the consonant clusters from it and write on a paper. They will be reading those words by pair.
Building Words-The students will match initial consonant clusters with the word endings to create a word. There will be three columns. First column is for the initial consonant clusters, the second is for the word endings and the third is for the created word. Children will take turns in selecting clusters and words from the first two columns placing them together. If the word read is a nonsense word, the student should look to see if either the cluster or ending could be switched with one another to make a real word. The created word will be placed in the third column. Then students will read all the words in the third column.
Decoding-Instructing the students that when reading words that contain two consonants side by side, blend the two sound together and say them quickly. Repeated reading follows as well as individual reading.
Consonant Clusters-These are groups of two or more consonants. A consonant cluster can appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word.
The study employed the Descriptive Comparative research design. The respondents of the study were taken from the 60 pupils of Sixto Babao Elementary School. The random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Secondary data was administered before and after the intervention was introduced. The statistical tools used in the analysis of the data were mean, standard deviation, One-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Eta².Mean and standard deviation were used in describing the level of performance of pupils. The lesson covered was reading consonant clusters. The data were tallied, tabulated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science 16.0-Student Version software.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to WBD differ from each other. However, all of them were interpreted as did not meet expectation.
2. The level of performance of students in reading consonant clusters when exposed to WBD is fairly satisfactory.
3. There is no significant difference in the performance of students in reading consonant clusters when exposed to WBD.
4. There is a significant difference among the three: Word Hunt, Building Words and Decoding associated with the difference in performance of students in reading consonant clusters.
5. The effect size of WBD to the performance of students in reading consonant clusters is moderate.
The WBD strategies may be adopted by the grade two teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District.