THREE-WAY STRATS AND L1 READING COMPREHENSION IN ANSWERING LITERAL LEVEL QUESTION OF GRADE ONE LEARNERS

amit

CHARINA P. AMIT
Master Teacher I
Vedasto F. Corcuera Elementary School

Abstract
This study was conducted to find out the effect of the three-way strats to the reading comprehension in answering literal level question of Grade –One Learners. Mean standard deviation test, one way ANOVA, Tukey, HSP, and effective size were used for the statistical treatment of data.Using the descriptive-comparative design the study was able to find out that the different strategies such as Guided Reading, Flashcard Reading and Peer Tutoring have influenced the reading comprehension in answering literal level questions of Grade One Learners. The data revealed that there was a significant effect between the three-way strats and the reading comprehension in answering literal level question of Grade one Learners, S.Y. 2015-2016.

Introduction
Reading is the ability to recognize words and its corresponding sounds. It is one of the basic skills one should master and a prerequisite for one to gain higher skills. Comprehension on the other hand is an act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect, while most students recognize some letters, words, and most of them fail to grasp the words they are reading. This is the primary problem language teachers encounter with their students, especially in the public schools. Accordingly, reading performance in a second language is largely shared with reading ability in the first language.( Chun & plus, 1997 ). It transpires that L1 reading performance is an indicator of L2 reading performance. Thus, the ability to read in one’s mother language could be applied in attempts to read foreign language texts. According to Wallace ( 1986 ), there is considerable evidence to demonstrate that people learn to read only once, whatever the language of their first literacy, and learning to read a second language is an extension of that literacy.
Gunning(1996) schema theory of reading comprehension defines as the organized knowledge that one already has about people, places, things and events .As stated by Carnine, Silbert and Kameenui ( 1997 ) literal questioning can vary in difficulty depending on the length of the text, the order in which the questions are asked and how they match to the order of the text. Questions assessing literal comprehension skills examine how well students can identify and understand information that is directly stated in the text.
Attainment of reading comprehension had been a very common experience all over the world by educators. According to M.D. Coyne ( E.J. Kami’enui|D.W. Carnine(2007) “Current Issues in Reading”, he pointed out on the several issues on the need to increased focus on the development of literacy for all student and on reading comprehension. And, the U.S National Research council acknowledge a need for more research on reading comprehension. He also made mentioned of the RAND Reading Study Group ( 2002) which determined that “ evidence-based improvements in the teaching practices of reading comprehension are sorely needed”. As a result, a number of important research initiatives, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, are currently underway that could significantly add to our understanding of ways to support reading comprehension of all students. Many educators in the USA believe that children need to learn to analyze text (comprehend it) even before they can read it on their own, and comprehension instruction generally begins in Pre-Kindergarten or Kindergarten. But other US educators consider this reading approach to be completely backward for very young children, arguing that the children must learn how to decode the words in a story before they can analyze the story itself.
The Philippines Department of Education implemented the K to 12 curriculum, which is in line with the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals that is to promote achievement of universal primary education through Education for All (EFA) movement and global literacy. It had implemented plenty of programs that will help learners develop their reading skills. It continuously implementing various reading programs to develop and enhance reading comprehension or lessen if cannot be eliminated. It aim to make every child a reader/ writer in his/her own grade level.
In the Division of Davao City, a lot of reading programs had been implemented to eliminate student’s difficulties in reading. Some of those reading programs are Project PAIR ( Parent’s Assistance in Improving Reading ) and DEAR ( Drop Everything And Read). And accordingly, based on the result of the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory, most of the students’ reading proficiency level belongs to frustration. This shows that they can read but have difficulty in understanding what they are reading. In other words they have a very poor level of reading comprehension.
Vedasto F. Corcuera Elementary School of Tibungco District has already implemented these programs. The DEAR Program was implemented daily every morning at 10:30. When the bell rung, children will drop everything or stop doing anything and pick the book they want and read it for 20 minutes. On the other hand, Project PAIR Program was implemented last school year 2013-2014. Here, the parents were taught how to sound out the letter and the proper way to read a story. Still, the students have a hard time comprehending the stories. They can read but have difficulty in answering even in the literal level of questions.

The researcher aimed to use the Three-Way Strats to uplift the level of reading comprehension of these students for this school year 2015-2016. It aimed to answer the following questions:

1. What is the mean score of the three strategies when exposed to three-way strats in terms of guided reading, flashcard reading and peer tutoring?
2. What is the level of performance of students in L1 reading comprehension in answering literal level question?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the study in L1 reading comprehension in answering literal level question when exposed to three-way strats?
4. Is there a significant difference in the three-way strats associated with the difference of the performance of students’ L1 reading comprehension in answering literal level question?
5. What is the effect size of the three-way strats to the L1 reading comprehension in answering literal level question?

For clarity purposes the following terms are defined operationally:
Guided Reading is an instructional approach that involves a teacher working with a small group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar level of text. The text is easy enough for students to read with the teacher’s skillful support.
Flashcard Reading is a technique used in teaching reading that could develop the learner to improve their comprehension skills. It is a set of cards bearing information, as words used in classroom drills to aid memorization by way of speed repetition.
Peer tutoring refers to a teaching strategy wherein a student from similar status or the same grade level tutor another struggling learner.
Reading Comprehension in Answering Literal Level Question refers to the ability of the learners to understand the different types of questions. By learning that the answers to some questions are right there in the text, that some answers require a reader to think and search and that some answer can only be answered on their own.

Method
The researcher used the descriptive- comparative research design. The respondents were ninety (90) Grade I students of Vedasto F. Corcuera Elementary School. Probability sampling using simple random technique was used in the selection of the respondents. Mean Standard and Deviation test, One way ANOVA, Tukey,HSP and Effective size was used for the statistical treatment of the data. Pre-test and posttest had been administered by the researcher.
The researcher asked permission from the school principal to conduct the research. Pre-test was administered. Three-way Strats was implemented. Posttest was administered, data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted to determine the effectiveness of the strategies.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. The mean score of all groups when exposed to Three-way Strats in terms of Guided Reading, Flashcard Reading, and Peer tutoring resulted very high and high.
2. The level of performance of students in L1 Reading Comprehension in Answering Literal level Question when exposed to Three-way Strats interpreted as very high.
3. There was a significant difference in the performance of students in L1 Reading Comprehension in Answering Literal Level Question when exposed to Three-way Strats.
4. There was a significant difference in the Three-way Strats associated with the difference in performance of students in L1 Reading Comprehension in Answering Literal Level Question.
5. There was a large effect size of Three-way Strats to the performance of students in L1 Reading Comprehension in Answering Literal Level Question.
Recommendation
Three-Way Strats is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Vedasto F. Corcuera Elementary School, Tibungco District for school year 2016-2017.

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