Master Teacher I
Osmeña Elementary School

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Phono-Visual-RAP in beginning reading in English of the Grade One Learners of Osmeña Elementary School. Using Descriptive Comparative Research Design and Purposive Sampling Technique was used. Statistical treatment used were Mean, Standard Deviation, T-test and Eta². There was a significant difference with large effect on the implementation of the Phono-Visual-RAP in beginning reading. Based on the finding of the study, the researcher recommended that teachers should implement the Phono-Visual –RAP since it helped students to read.


Learning to read is anything but natural, in fact, it does not develop incidentally, it requires human intervention and context. It is also an essential part of basic education. Teaching of beginning reading is of supreme importance, that is why , Grade 1 to 3 are critical in the child’s learning cycle. At this age, the fundamentals for literacy have to be established and the start of a reading habit developed. For many children, reading must be taught explicitly and systematically, one small step at a time.
Beginning reading is the solid foundation on which almost all subsequent learning takes place and all children need this foundation. Over the years, many approaches, strategies, methods and techniques to teaching beginning reading have been developed. Success or failure of the approaches depended upon the ability of the teachers to execute or utilize them. According to Durkin’s Theory, when a child is taught a little, then she/he is ready for a little more, it depends on the child’s ability to respond to a specific method of teaching.
Globally, 250 million children are not learning foundational reading skills, 130 million of whom have spent at least four years in school. (globalreadingnetwork, 2016). Student reading difficulties can be like many forms of cancer: relatively easy to treat if detected early but more and more difficult to remedy if allowed to persist (Goodwin 2011).
In the Philippines, reading is an important gateway to the other disciplines, progress in reading comprehension is lagging behind the improvement (philippinesbasiceducationus 2015).Moreover, based on the population of 80 million, 5.3 million Filipinos cannot read and write, that is why the Philippines is so uncompetitive in the world economy and this is why so many of our people continue to live in poverty or barely escape from it. ( Luz 2010).
In Davao City, particularly in Osmeña Elementary School of Tibungco District, 4 % were Non-readers, based on the results of Phil-IRI for the S.Y. 2014-2015. It is the desire of the researcher to improve the beginning reading in English of the students.

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of Phono-Visual –RAP in improving beginning reading skills and answer the following questions:

1. What is the pre-test scores of the respondents before the implementation of Phono-Visual- RAP?

2. What is the post-test scores of the respondents after the implementation of Phono-Visual-RAP?

3. Is there a significant difference before and after the implementation of Phono-Visual-RAP? 4. What is the effect size of Phono-Visual-RAP in improving beginning reading of Grade One Learners of Osmeña Elementary School?

For the purpose of clarity, the following terms are defined to have the following operational meanings:
Phono-Visual-RAP– is a technique in teaching beginning reading based on the Phono-Visual Oral Sound Blending Meaning (PVOSBM) Method. The learners hear ( phono), see ( visual), say (oral, sound blending and meaning. The additional feature is the use of the RAP (rhythm and coordination) in the beginning reading exercises.
Beginning Reading Skills – is a result of many small skills that build one upon the other like, repeat a simple story often heard , say , and point to at least 10 letters of the alphabet, match letter with the beginning sound of a word and recognition words or sign often seen.

Descriptive Comparative research design was used in this study. The respondents were the 30 Grade One Learners of S.Y. 2015-2016 of Osmeña Elementary School, Km. 12 Sasa, Davao City. The researcher used the Purposive Sampling Technique and Paired T-test. The statistical tools were Mean, Standard Deviation Test, Paired Sample T-test and Eta² which were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Student Version).
The researcher sent a request letter to the School Head to conduct a study. Administered the Pre-test. Implement the Phono-Visual- RAP intervention for improving beginning reading for 60 days. Administered the Post- test. The date was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted.

1. The pre-test results on beginning reading is very low.
2. The post-test results on beginning reading is high.
3. There is a significant difference on the pre-test and post-test scores.
4. The Phono-Visual –RAP has large effect on the beginning reading of Grade 5. One learners.

Phono-Visual –RAP is recommended to be adopted in improving beginning reading skills by the teachers of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District, for the S.Y. 2015-2016.


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