P3 APPROACHES IN POOR PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS INVOLVING PERCENTAGE OF GRADE VI PUPILS OF AFPLC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

lilibeth-delena

LILIBETH S. DELEÑA
Master Teacher I
AFPLC Elementary School

Abstract
This study aimed to find out if P3 Approach can nourish the hunger of students in Poor Problem Solving Skills Involving Percentage of Grade Six pupils of Armed Forces of the Philippines Logistics Command Elementary School (AFPLCES). The researcher employed descriptive Comparative design wherein ninety pupils of Grade VI were the respondents applying the simple random technique. Finding revealed that the respondents were positively perceived towards the application of P3 Approaches. Majority of the respondents were rated good in their academic performance.

Introduction
Mathematics reveals hidden patterns that help us understand the world around us. Math is around us. It’s hard to find any corner in life that isn’t touched by Mathematics. Everyday, we are surrounded with it. It teaches us to be precise in thought and words. It teaches us life skills. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives like mobile devices, art, money and even sports. Learning Mathematics forces us to learn on how to think logically and solve problems skilfully (Huert, 2011).
Mathematics is one of the subject areas utmost studied, since Pre-K level all the way to college. It is a means of empowerment and understanding that everyone is enabled to. Through Mathematics, we can convey representation of model and interpret both physical and social phenomena. It is the unifying and integral thread that runs through the sciences (NCR, 2011). Mathematics is a gateway for national progress since a country’s economic success relies on its progress in science and engineering (Tan, 2010).
According to Pascua (2011), Mathematics education in the Philippines is Mathematical empowerment. The basic Education has undergone several revisions over the years. After curricular reviews that commenced in 1995, the Department of Education Culture & Sports (DECS) currently known as Department of Education decided to adopt the Refined Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) in 2002, but inspite of various changes to the curriculum, the goals of Mathematics Education at the basic education level remain more or less the same: “to provide opportunities for individuals to develop skills and attitudes needed for effective participation in everyday living and prepare them for further education and the world of work so that they make worthwhile contributions to the society at large”.
The Twin goals of Mathematics in Basic Education levels, K-10 are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. These goals will provide solid foundation for Mathematics at Grade 11 and 12. Scriven and Paul (2011) both believe that critical thinking is an intellectually disciplined process of active and skillful conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating of information gathered from or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication as a guide to belief and action. Mathematics provides students with essential skills in reasoning, decision making and solving problem to help them make sense of many aspects of their rapidly changing world (FAPE, 2012). On the other hand, Polya (2010) attests that Mathematical Problem Solving is finding ways around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown. Furthermore, Mathematics promotes self-reflection and develops one’s ability to face life’s problems (Manuel, 2011). Further, these goals will be realized with a systematized and laborious curriculum content, a precise set of high-level skills and processes, desirable values and attitudes, and suitable tools, taking into account the different frameworks of Filipino learners.
One of the least learned competencies in Mathematics is solving problem specifically involving percentage. The word “percentage” is very familiar since it is used regularly in the media to describe anything .It is a useful way of making comparison , apart from being used to calculate like the Value Added Tax (VAT), Insurance Premium, tips in the restaurants, discount on sales items , commission when selling something, and interest from loans. Percentage has become part of our day to day living. Mathematics is one of the subject areas that penetrate life at any age and in any situation. Therefore it must be learned comprehensively and with much depth (Bran, 2010).
The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of P³ Approaches to the numeracy skills specifically in Solving Problem Involving Percentage.

The researcher sought to find out the answers to the following;
1. What is the mean score of students before exposed to Percentage Translation Approach, Percentage Tricks Approach, and Percentage Proportion Approach?
2. What is the level of performance in understanding and solving problem skills involving Percentage?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of pupils in Solving problems Involving Percentage when exposed to P³ Approaches?
4. Is there a significant difference in the Percentage Approaches associated with the difference of pupils in solving Problem Involving Percentage and
5. What is the effect size of Percentage Tricks Approach to the performance of pupils in Solving Problem Involving Percentage? Further, the null hypothesis of the study declares that there is no significant difference on the Solving Problem Involving Percentage skill of pupils when exposed to P3 Approaches.

The following terms are operationally defined for better understanding:
P3 Approaches – refers to Percentage Translation Approach, Percentage Tricks Approach Percentage, Proportion Approach
Percentage Translation Approach – refers to the strategy in solving problem involving percentage by Dividing the top of the fraction by the bottom, multiply by 100 and add a “%” sign.
Percentage Tricks Approach – refers to the strategy in calculating Percentage mentally by finding the 100%,75%, 50% and 25% of a given number (base).
Percentage Proportion Approach – refers to the strategy where the base is the original value and the percentage is the new value.

Method
The researcher employed the Descriptive comparison research design. This type of research used the Secondary data through the Mean and Standard Deviation, One-Way Anova. The respondents of the study were the ninety pupils of Grade Six of Armed Forces of the Philippines Logistics Command Elementary School located at Camp Felix Apolinario, Panacan Davao City.

Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, the conclusions were drawn:
1. The students obtained an excellent performance when exposed to Percentage Translation, satisfactory performance when exposed to Percentage Proportion Approach and very satisfactory to Percentage Tricks.
2. The level of performance in understanding Solving Percentage Skill revealed a very satisfactory result.
3. There was a significant difference in the Solving Percentage skill of the pupils before and after P3 Approaches were employed.
4. There a significant difference in the P3 Approaches associated with the difference of performance in understanding Solving Percentage skill.
Using P3 Approaches in the classroom had a large effect and positive impact on the student’s performance.

Recommendation
P3 Approach is recommended to be adopted by the Mathematics teachers of Armed Forces of the Philippines Logistics Command Elementary School, Tibungco District, for SY: 2015-2016.

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