Vedasto F. Corcuera Elementary School
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of MaDS strategy in teaching adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10 of kindergarten students of V. F. Corcuera Elementary School. Descriptive-comparative research design using one-way ANOVA was used. The research findings revealed that MaDS strategy has significant difference in the performance of students. It resulted to a moderate effect size. Thus, this study recommends that MaDS strategy be adopted in teaching.
Children demonstrate an interest in math well before they enter school. They notice basic geometric shapes, construct and extend simple patterns, and learn to count. According to the recent studies of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, young learners’ future understanding of mathematics requires an early foundation based on a high-quality, challenging, and accessible mathematics education. Thus, it is very important to make a concrete foundation as early as from the young age of pupils so they can easily figure out and apply the skills being required in a formal and higher education of mathematics. Such practices in turn require that teachers have the support of policies, organizational structures, and resources that enable them to succeed. Adding on by Bogomolny of 1996-2015, mathematics originated with the desire and need to count and measure and addition being just one such operation. However, nowadays, there are still few of the pupils in kindergarten who find it difficult in dealing addition in mathematics due to having difficulty in writing and recognizing numbers and often trouble with counting and memorizing facts.
According to learning theory based on psychologist Jean Piaget’s research, children are active learners who master concepts by progressing through three levels of knowledge–concrete, pictorial, and abstract. In relation to addition, the use of manipulatives enables students to explore concepts at the first, or concrete, level of understanding. When students manipulate objects, they are taking the necessary first steps toward building understanding and internalizing math processes and procedures. Young children often solve addition and subtraction problems by counting concrete objects, beginning with their fingers. They go on to use concrete objects such as base-ten blocks and counters to develop more sophisticated problem-solving strategies based on what they know about counting, Siegler 1996. Research evidence also of Claessens of 2011, suggests that children’s math success when they enter kindergarten can predict later reading achievement; foundational skills in number and other operations may set the stage for reading skills. Thorndike of 1922 recommended that in mathematics, students perform drill and practice on correct procedures and facts to strengthen correct mental bonds.
Substantial research from all over the world now indicates that children move through a progression of different procedures to find the sum of single-digit numbers as stated by Fuson of 1992. Many students have difficulties when attempting to solve word problems in mathematics based on the annual research of Yale University (2016) one of the public schools in Africa. These reasons include students’ lack of exposure to life outside of television and their neighborhoods, minimal reading skills, and difficulty in comprehension skills. It has been found out that individual differences among children are evident before they reach school. Moreover, children who begin with relatively low levels of math knowledge tend to progress more slowly in math and fall further behind. Adding up to these, low achievement at an early age puts U.S. children at a disadvantage for excelling in math in later years according to U.S. Department of Education (2001).
In the Philippines, DepEd’s K to 12 introduces the mandatory kindergarten year as a dry run for the elementary years according to the Philippine Basic Education (2015), in which teachers have to use mother tongue as medium of instruction in teaching particularly in kindergarten. It is assumed that the earlier the child builds a strong foundation in math learning, the better will he perform math in later years.
In Kindergarten of V. F. Corcuera Elementary School, particularly in mathematics subject, most of the students are having difficulty in adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10. In view of this, the researcher determined effective strategies that would suit the abilities and needs of the pupils.
The objective of this study is to find out if MaDS Strategy improves adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10 of kindergarten students in V. F. Elementary School, this study sought to find out the answers to the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed to MaDS strategy- fence method, finger counting and the use of counters?
2. What is the level of performance of students in understanding adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of students in understanding adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10 when exposed to MaDS strategy?
4. Is there a significant difference in the three methods, namely, fence method, finger counting and the use of counters associated with the difference in performance of students in understanding adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10?
5. What is the effect size of MaDS strategy to the performance of students in understanding adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10?
The following terminologies used were defined operationally for better understanding:
Mathematical Developing Skills (MaDS) refers to the three teaching strategies used by the researcher which are Fence method, Finger counting, and use of Counters, the following were operationally defined below:
Fence method refers to the first teaching strategy, wherein the students are going to draw corresponding lines based on the number given.
Finger counting refers to the second teaching strategy, where the students use their fingers in counting.
Counters refer to the third teaching strategy, wherein the students were given manipulative as their aid in adding numbers.
Adding one-digit operation from numbers 0-10 refers to the competency based lesson of kindergarten from K to 12 curriculum guide.
This study made use of Descriptive-Comparative Research Design. The respondents of this study were the three sections consisting of 90 students of Kindergarten pupils. The researcher made use of the probability sampling using simple random technique and utilized secondary data specifically the scores of students from pre-test and post-test. The researcher made use of Mean and Standard Deviation and One-Way ANOVA as statistical tool then, interpreted with the aid of Microsoft Excel software and of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
The study was conducted after being permitted by the school principal. Pretest was administered where MaDS Strategy was implemented. Then post test was administered, data were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted to determine the most effective strategy of this approach.
Based on the results of the study, the following are the conclusions:
1. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to MaDS Strategy through fence method, finger counter is excellent while the use of counters is very satisfactory.
2. The level of performance of students in Adding One-digit Operation is excellent.
3. There is a significant difference in the performance of students in Adding One-digit Operation when exposed to MaDS Strategy.
4. There is a significant difference in the three strategies in MaDS Strategy associated with the difference in performance of students in Adding One-digit Operation.
5. MaDS Strategy has a moderate effect size to the performance of the Kindergarten students in Adding One-digit Operation.
Based on the above statistical results, Fence Method got the highest mean score among from the three teaching strategies. Therefore, MaDS Strategy is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of V. F. Corcuera Elementary School, as well as to other teachers who’s particularly teaching Kindergarten learners.