MARIA TERESA N. BACARO
Sixto Babao Elementary School
This action research project was conducted to improve the sequencing skills using the LIP strategy. The respondents were the 60 pupils of grade three enrolled during school year 2015-2016 at Sixto Babao Elementary School. Random sampling was employed in selecting pupils—respondents of the study. Post test scores were tabulated and analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, One-Way Anova, TukeyHSD and eta2 test. Therefore, LIP is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District.
Pupils’ apparent reading problems may be problems of insufficient background knowledge [content, formal, and linguistic]. Consequently, readers’ failure or confusion to make sense of a text is caused by their lack of appropriate knowledge that can easily fit with the content of the text. It is easy to say that when children have trouble sequencing, they will misunderstand what they read. Some children find sequencing things they hear very hard because the information is so fleeting. Based on the study, poor study habits, absenteeism, poverty, and laziness were some of the few problems that made our pupils performance poor in sequencing skills. And because of these direct causes, pupils always have problem in sequencing skills. Because of such problems encountered by the pupils, lack of interest in schooling, low scores in summative and periodic test, high retention or failure, drop out and have poor LAPG result.
Sequencing refers to students’ abilities to put events in order according to Johnson (2011).The theory of schema had great impact in sequencing skills. It deals with the reading process, where readers are expected to combine their previous experiences with the text they are reading International Journal Information and Education Technology, Vol.1, No.2, (2011). Sequencing is necessary for: understanding and telling stories; performing daily activities; solving problems; reading comprehension; succeeding in school and at work. In order to sequence events correctly, a student has to: understand cause and effect; make predictions; understand time and transition words in stories like first, next, last; know the elements of a story like beginning, middle, and end; have adequate reasoning and planning skills.
Sequence of events is the order in which events take place. Understanding the order in which events happen will help you better understanding what you are reading. Pieces of literature may be organized in different ways. Many pieces of non-fiction, such as recipes and instructions, are written in chronological order. Chronological order is the time order in which events take place. Many fictional stories are written in chronological order as well, Cached Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive (2012). Sequencing activities that include the manipulation of pictures, words, and sentences help build important literacy skills like reading left to right, comprehending important details, predicting, and identifying the parts of a story. A majority of states have educational standards that address sequencing at basic levels (identifying what happened first, next) and at advanced levels (writing essays, performing experiments), Academic Benchmark, (2011).
In the Philippines, in Science subject, helping children sequence also develops their scientific inquiry skills. In order to study or observe changes in something, students must follow along and record changes. The changes happen in a particular order, which kids can document by writing or drawing pictures. Understanding sequence of events of a piece of writing helps you to better understand what you have read. Another way to remember what you have read is to put it in your own words, Rockets(2011).
Sequencing skills is a primary concern among us Grade 3 teachers especially, that we have our LAPG (Language Assessment for Primary Grade). We found out that our pupils have difficulty in arranging the events in the story they read. Addressing this matter, our school has done several activities to cater such issue. We encourage pupils to practice diligently in every lesson every day. Furthermore, we also design varities of activities to stimulate pupil’s interest such as reading activities, games, and board activities. With these techniques we are helpful that our pupils will see the importance of sequencing skills in their academic achievement but also in their LAPG results.
This study aims to find out the effectiveness of LIP in improving the sequencing skills of pupils. . Specifically it sought to find out the answers to the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups before being exposed to LIP?
2. What is level of performance of learners in understanding sequencing skills when exposed to LIP?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of students in understanding sequencing skills when exposed to LIP?
4. Is there a significant difference in the three learning experiencing approaches associated with difference in performance of students in understanding in sequencing skills.
5. What is the effect size of LIP to the performance of students in understanding sequencing skills.
For clarity purposes, the following terms were defined operationally:
Lecture a traditional way of teaching.
Individual Approach (May I Take Your Order, Please?) they will be given a sentences and arrange it from the beginning up to end individually.
Peer Tutoring (Pictures Tell a Story)they have their partner and they will be given some pictures and arrange numbering from 1 to 10.
Events is the things that happened in the story or the details in the story.
Sequencing Events is arranging the details in a selection in its proper order.
The study employed the descriptive comparative research design. The respondents of the study were from the 60 pupils of Sixto Babao Elem. School. The random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Secondary data was administered before and after the intervention was introduced. The statistical tools used in the analysis of the data were mean, standard deviation, One – Way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and eta2. Mean and standard deviation were used in describing the level of performance of pupils. One-Way Anova used to determine the effect of instructional schemes of the academic performance of learners. The lesson covered was sequencing events. The data were tallied, tabulated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 (Student Version) software.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions can be:
1. The level of performance of the three groups in terms of Lecture was marked fairly satisfactory while individual marked satisfactory and peer got the lowest with a descriptive interpretation of did not meet the expectation.
2. The level of performance of students in understanding sequencing skills is very satisfactory.
3. There is no significant difference in the performance of students in understanding sequencing skills when exposed to LIP.
4. There is a significant difference in the lecture, individual approach and peer tutoring when associated with the performance of students in understanding in sequencing skills.
5. The effect size of LIP to the performance of students in understanding sequencing skills is large.
Based on the findings and conclusion on this study, the LIP is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District, for SY 2015-2016.