NOREEN ANN D. SARTE
Osmeña Elementary School
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of IMM: Addition Cups, Adding Plate and Finger Math in improving the Numeracy Skill of Kindergarten learners particularly in Adding one digit number. Kindergarten learners from Osmeña Elementary School were chosen as respondents of the study using simple random technique. Descriptive comparative design was employed in the study. Pre-test and Post-test were administered. Statistical treatments used were mean, standard deviation, one way ANOVA and ETA Square. Furthermore, the study revealed a high student performance in Numeracy Skill and there was a significant difference and large effect in the performance of learners in understanding Numeracy Skill when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs.
In today’s world numeracy is an essential skill. Numeracy refers to the human ability to use mathematical understanding and skills to solve problems and meet the demands of day-to-day living in a complex social setting (Cain, (2011). In order to have the ability of this particular skill, a person needs to be able to think and communicate quantitatively, to make sense of data, to have special awareness, to comprehend patterns and sequences, and to perceive situations where mathematical reasoning can be applied to solve problems DES (2011,p.8). In addition, Mathematics for younger age, comprises only of basic operations like addition, subtraction and various other applications, allowing young children to comprehend these core concepts with mental ideas which later on would enhance their capability of resolving problems as cited in http://www.math4children.com. In Kindergarten, mathematics is often part of daily class routines: During class meetings, block building, use of construction materials, music, art, movement, and many other activities throughout the day. These experiences are vitally important Diamond et. al (2010).
Numeracy Skills are significant in life. National Numeracy (2013) stated that “Numeracy” is a life skill. Being numerate goes beyond simply doing sums, it means having the confidence and competence to use numbers and think mathematically in everyday life. To young children, Numeracy provides the foundation for all learning particularly during school years. What they know when they enter kindergarten and first grade predicts their mathematics achievement for years to come – even throughout their school career. Moreover, what they know in math predicts their reading achievement later Clements and Sarama (2010). Because math predicts later math and later reading, mathematics appears to be a core component of cognition. Duncan et al. (2011); Duncan and Magnuson (2011). The greater benefit of math for children is that it makes them confident and they tend to be more active in their class activities and above all overcome the fear of the subject usually observed in most of the learners.
Numeracy skill worldwide also showed a global mathematics crisis. This observation is borne out by the poor rankings of developing countries and emerging economies in international learning assessments. As stated in Learning Report 2012, children in low income countries take until grade six to reach the basic mathematical competencies. Around the world, 250million children either fail to complete more than three years of basic education. Among others, these children lack basic numeracy skills – such as measuring, estimating and using simple mathematical operations Levin & Lockheed (2011).
In the Philippines, numeracy plays a significant role and it is truly a very essential skill that one must possess. However, numeracy education among Filipino children are hindered with so many factors including poverty, scarcity of mathematics tools such as books, lack of motivation and diverted interest unto modern technology most especially to online gaming as cited in http://www.edublox.com/numeracy. Regardless of the numeracy problems, teaching strategies is one of the most effective means of helping learners to overcome numeracy failure according to Danielle and Mcnamara (2012). Most specifically mathematics is a subject which requires full concentration and attention and teachers need to be very tactful while teaching this subject. If proper mechanism and strategies are adopted for teaching mathematics to kindergarten learners the outcome will be very rewarding as cited in http://www.math4children.com.
In Davao City, particularly in Osmeña Elementary School, Kindergarten learners were scoring below average in Mathematics skills among other skills being measured as based on the SREYA result last school year 2014-2015.
Thus, the researcher of the study sought to improve numeracy skills of the kindergarten learners in Osmeña Elementary School. In addition this study aimed to answer the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs in terms of Addition Cups, Adding Plate and Finger Math?
2. What is the level of performance of learners in understanding numeracy skill particularly in adding one digit number?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of learners in Numeracy Skill when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs?
4. Is there a significant difference in IMM Instructional Designs associated with the difference in performance of learners in Numeracy Skill particularly in Addition of one digit number?
5. What is the effect size of IMM Instructional Designs to the performance of learners in Numeracy Skill specifically in Adding of one digit number? Furthermore, the null hypothesis of the study declares that there is no significant difference in the numeracy skills of learners when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs.
For clarification purposes, the following terms are defined to have the following operational denotation:
IMM – stands for Interactive and Manipulative Mathematics activities such as Addition Cups, Adding Plate and Finger Math for Kindergarten learners that are used as strategic methods in solving addition of one-digit number.
Addition Cups – refers to the teaching method in solving addition of one-digit number that makes use of a designed tool made of cups which allows learners to manipulate and visualize the adding concept.
Adding Plate – refers to the teaching method in solving addition of one-digit number that uses a particularly designed plate for adding one-digit number. Moreover, it allows young learners to interact and visualize the adding concept.
Finger Math – refers to the traditional teaching method in solving addition of one-digit number that uses the learners’ fingers as manipulative tool in adding numbers.
Numeracy Skill – refers to the ability of Kindergarten learners to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts such as addition.
The study utilized Descriptive Comparative research design. A total of 60Kindergarten learners of Osmeña Elementary School located at Km 12, Sasa, Davao City, were identified to be the respondents of the study. The researcher used the Probability Sampling using Simple Random Technique. Correspondingly, the statistical tools used were Mean, Standard Deviation, One way ANOVA and ETA2 which were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Student Version).
The researcher sent a request letter to the school head to formally conduct the study. Afterwards, administered the Pre-test and then employed the IMMA. Next, administered the Post-test and then collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted the data.
Base on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs; Addition Cups was labeled Excellent, Adding Plate was labeled Very Satisfactory and Finger Math was labeled Fairly Satisfactory.
2. The level of performance in understanding Numeracy Skill of learners was Very Satisfactory.
3. There is a significant difference in the performance of learners in understanding numeracy skills in adding one-digit number when exposed to IMM Instructional Designs.
4. There is a significant difference in IMM Instructional Designs associated with the difference in performance of learners in understanding numeracy skill.
5. The level in IMM Instructional Designs to the numeracy skill of kindergarten learners of Osmeña Elementary school has large effect size.
Base on the findings and conclusions drawn in this study, IMM Instructional Designs is recommended to be adopted as one of the teaching strategies by the teachers of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District, for School Year 2015-2016.