SILAHIS M. BAYBAY
AFPLC Elementary School
This study determined the effectiveness of HITS (High- Impact Teaching Strategies) to improve the inferential skills of the grade five pupils in AFPLC Elementary School. Descriptive-comparative research design was utilized in the study. The respondents were the ninety (90) Grade Five pupils of AFPLC Elementary School, Tibungco District, Davao City of School Year 2015 – 2016. The researcher made use of the probability sampling using simple random technique. Pre-test and post test data were collected and evaluated using Mean and Standard Deviation, and the Eta Squared Statistics. Results indicated that high-impact teaching strategies for science namely: group work, hands-on experiences, and interactivity with life, had significant difference in terms of improving the inferential ability of the learners.
Making inferences in any subject is very difficult for students. They could hardly act or process of reaching a conclusion that is formed by facts or evidence. Academic performance is affected. Asking “How do you know” to generate association around the topic and discuss clearly their collective knowledge are difficult to process. On the subject of pupils’ age, Knobloch (2010) explains that inference can be practiced in and outside the domain of reading by doing it through discussion orally. It is also very important teaching the students the meaning of the question words “who,” “when”, “why” etc. How can students be best taught to use inference skills? What are the most effective strategies in teaching inference skills to students in different ages and ability? A teacher who displays enthusiasm for teaching science demonstrates a positive emotion about science, which can influence student’s attitudes (Crewley, 2010).
Larrivee (2010) highlights an idea in his book, “Environmental Conditions to Personal and Public Health”, that making a difference has to do more with a long term impact on students thinking and possibly life actions as a result of effective teaching. The ability to learn new information depends on environmental factors affecting a person. This emphasis can enhance student’s engagement and topic relevancy even beyond what can be achieved with ecologically linked environment. Yuill and Cain (2010) hypothesize that students have to know that it is ‘permissible’ or ‘necessary’ to draw inferences. They partly attributed the failure of students who are poor in comprehension to draw as many inferences as good readers to a misconception that one should not look outside the text for answer.
Few studies conducted in the UK over the last 20 years and from the USA over the last decade, explicitly investigated best methods for teaching inference skills. One of the comprehensive works conducted in the field was that of Graesser. In his study, he identifies a larger number of inferring and identified triggering processes that fire the production of inference. In the case of knowledge stored in long- term memory (such as experience, other text or even earlier sections of the current text which have already been encoded in the long-term memory), Graesser (2010) explains how coherence-preserving inferences are constructed using a type of equation. He suggests that the stages involved are: formulating a thought along the lines of what idea combined with facts, the mediating idea is compared with world/background knowledge in long-term memory, if the mediating idea coincides with knowledge and inference is validated.
The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the Department of Education (DepEd) Science Education Institute (SEI) in the Philippines singled out problem on poor comprehension as a principal factor in the miserable performance of students. Imam (2010) reported that DepEd regarded reading comprehension as the single factor which caused frustration of students to perform better in science achievement test. Most teachers agree that inferential ability is crucial for learning science concepts although science text are often more difficult to understand because they often omit important background information and fail to make relations among concept in the text explicity. Further, Vanlen (2011) elucidates that without the learner’s ability to retain course materials, teachers would not be able to successfully measure the amount of information that has been learned.
According to Adorable (2012), learning by doing is the conceptual framework of what we call Project-Based Learning (PBL). It is an approach that shifts from the traditional teaching practices characterized by short, isolated and teacher-centered lessons. Instead, it emphasizes learning that can be derived from long term activities, which are interdisciplinary. Student are introduced with real world issues and practices. Solomon (2010) also supports this idea that hands on activity experiences will help students do and perform their outputs to the best of their knowledge that imposed and implied their inferential ability.
Furthermore, this study comprised of 48 male and 42 female students in grade five and it aims to answer the following questions: 1.) What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed to HITS in terms of group work, hands-on experience, and interactivity with life? 2.) What is the level of performance of students in understanding inferring skills? 3.) Is there a significant difference in the performance of students in inferring skills when exposed to HITS? 4.) Is there a significant difference in the three strategies associated with the differences in performance of students in HITS and 5.) What is the effect size of HITS to the performance of students in understanding inferential ability?. Further, the null hypothesis of the study declares that there is no significant difference on the inferential ability of pupils when exposed to HITS.
The following terms are defined operationally for better understanding:
HITS. It refers to the High-impact teaching Skills.
Hands – on experience. It refers to learning by doing in an experiment /projects.
Interactivity with life. It refers to facilitating learning opportunities where students discover for themselves unique characteristics of living things appeared as a high –impact teaching strategy.
Group work. It refers to involvement with peers provided opportunities for a social interaction and independent discovery within the group.
Inferential Ability. It refers to the thinking process of reaching a conclusion about something from known facts or evidence.
Based on the results generated, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The mean score of the three groups are the following: Hands-on M=15.43, Interactivity with Life M=10.23 and the Group work M= 13.66. Hands on and Group Work revealed a very satisfactory performance while interactivity gained satisfactory level.
2. There was statistically significant difference in the performance of the students, for three levels of diversified strategies. (Hands 0n, Interactivity with Life and Group work). Thus, the level of performance of the three groups was excellent.
3. Grade Five pupils of AFPLC Elementary School had excellent improvement in their inferential ability after being exposed to (HITS) High-Impact Teaching Strategies: Hands on, Interactivity with Life, and Group work.
4. The three strategies altogether displayed statistical significance to one another.
5. The application of HITS made a large effect and positive impact on the pupil’s performance.
Teachers are encouraged to adopt the (HITS) High-impact teaching strategies: Hands on, Interactivity with life and Group work, in drawing out the inferential ability of the students. It may be adopted in all grade levels.
Teachers are likewise encouraged to test its effectiveness to other subject areas.