MA. THERESA M. COMIDOY
Osmeña Elementary School
The aim of this study was to examine the reading strategies used by Grade 2 of Osmeña Elementary School learners and the possible effects of reading instruction on their reading comprehension. The Graphic organizer, Questioning Technique and Lecture Method pre-test and post-test were used. The Mean, Standard Deviation, One-Way ANOVA and Eta² were used in the statistical treatment of the data. Findings showed there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test results on the reading comprehension of the learners after the implementation. It had large effect on the reading comprehension of the learners.
Reading is the true backbone of most learning. Everything starts with the written word — whether it’s math, science or even home economics. As learners go up the educational ladder, more reading is usually required as subjects become more dense and challenging. (Philippine Star, 2010).If you’re a teacher working with learners who are struggling to read, you know it can be a very frustrating experience for both you and the student. And if you are the parent of a struggling reader, you are frustrated as well. You realize how important it is to develop a strong foundation in reading early on, but you may not know what to do to help.
In recent years, there has been an increased focus on reading instruction in primary (Lei, 2010).The literature has shown that comprehension strategy instruction, including multiple reading strategies, have been justified in being beneficial to helping learners become strategic readers and improve their reading comprehension (Klapwijk 2012; Medina 2011; Fan 2010; Antoniou &Souvenir 2007). Thus, it is necessary to provide learners with a reading strategy instruction which focuses on teaching reading strategies that can help them become strategic readers. Strategic reading, according to Alfassi (2010) requires that learners intentionally engage in planned actions under their control, in the manner that proficient readers do when they encounter difficulty in comprehending a text.
In a South African context, the need for a reading strategy instruction should be seen against the poor reading performance of the learners. According to Pretorius (2002), reading is a powerful learning tool, a means of constructing meaning and acquiring new knowledge. Moreover, reading is the cornerstone of instruction for all learners regardless of their ability level because it sets the foundation for future progress and success in virtually all other facets of life (Scott 2010; Luckner& Handley 2008). However, poor reading comprehension is cited as a fundamental feature of academic underperformance in South Africa (Pretorius 2002; Granville 2001; Dreyer 1998 Potchefstroom, Nel,
In a 2007 interview, Dr. Yolanda Quijano, then head of the DepEd’s Bureau of Elementary Education, attributed “reading problems as the main culprit for the poor performance of some learners in the NAT.” Her observation is indeed alarming. Hence, if a student’s reading comprehension is poor, chances are his or her performance in other subjects will be compromised (Philippine Star, 2010).Department of Education Secretary Armin A. Luistro (2012) said that it is important to assess the reading capability of learners because reading is the foundation of all academic learning. He added that if a pupil fails to master basic reading skills at the outset, it will be a constant struggle for them to get through other disciplines successfully, thus depriving them of the chance to become literate and productive individuals.
In Davao City, particularly in Osmeña Elementary School of Grade 2 learners, the result of Pre-Reading Assessment done last September 2015 found that 8% out of 287 learners were Non-Readers and 65% of them can read but have difficulty to comprehend. It is the desire of the researcher to improve the reading comprehension of the learners. In order to meet the reading needs of learners, educators are pressed to develop both effective instructional means for teaching reading comprehension in identifying the art of questioning and the use of reading strategies.
Thus, this study seeks to examine the contribution of reading strategy instruction to the reading comprehension of Grade 2 learners using the Graphic Organizer, the Questioning Technique and the Lecture Method if these are effective reading strategies instruction so as to improve learners’ reading comprehension skills.
This study sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed with GQL Strategies?
2. What is the level of performance of the learners in making predictions after the implementation of GQL Strategies?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of learners in the reading comprehension skills when exposed to the said teaching strategies?
4. Is there a significant difference in the three multiple instructional strategies associated with the difference in performance of learners in their reading comprehension skills.
5. What is the effect size of Multiple Reading Strategies to the performance of the learners in their reading comprehension skills?
Furthermore, the null hypothesis of the study declares that there is no significant difference in the comprehension skills of the learners when exposed to GQL.
To give more clarity and better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined operationally:
A graphic organizer is “a visual and graphic display that depicts the relationships between facts, terms, and or ideas within a learning task. Graphic organizers are also sometimes referred to as knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps, cognitive organizers, advance organizers, or concept diagrams.” (Hall and Strangman, 2002).Such organizers can be used in all disciplines to enhance and facilitate learners understanding.
Questioning techniques enables teachers to check learners understand. It also benefits learners as it encourages engagement and focuses their thinking on key concepts and ideas. Questioning is fundamental to successful communication-we all ask and are asked questions when engaged in conversation.
Lecture Method refers chalk-talk strategy. It is traditional in the sense that audio –visual instructional is not necessary. The teachers simply explain the lesson while learners listen and take down notes.
Reading Comprehension according to Basaraba (2013) is a complex process that requires different building-block skills. One model of reading comprehension proposes that understanding what we read is really the result of three levels of skills: literal comprehension, inferential comprehension and evaluative comprehension.
This study employed the Descriptive Comparative Research Design. The respondents of the study from the ninety grade two learners of Osmeña Elementary School. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Secondary data was administered before and after the intervention was introduced. The statistical tools used in the analysis of data were mean and standard deviation, one way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Eta squared. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS.
Based from the research findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to GQL Strategies; GO and QT score were excellent while LM scores satisfactory.
2. The level of performance of the Reading Comprehension skills of the learners was Very Satisfactory.
3. There was a significant difference in the performance of the learners in Reading Comprehension Skills when exposed to GO and QT Strategies.
4. There is a significant difference in GQL Strategies associated with the difference in the performance of the learners in Reading Comprehension Skills.
5. There is a large effect size of GQL Strategies to the comprehension skills of the Grade II learners of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District SY 2015-2016.
Based on the drawn conclusion from the study, GO and QT recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District S.Y. 2015-2016.