JOSEPHINE E. ESCRIBANO
Sixto Babao Elementary School
This action research project was conducted to improve the phonetic sound recognition skills using the GAP approach strategy. The respondents were the 60 pupils of Kindergarten enrolled during school year 2015-2016 at Sixto Babao Elementary School. The random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Secondary data was administered before and after the intervention was introduced, the statistical deviation and one way ANOVA and eta Mean and Standard deviation were used in describing the level of performance pupils. Frequency counts the effect of instructional schemes of the performance of learners. Therefore, GAP Approach is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District.
Pupils enter Kindergarten with differing abilities. Some pupils are able to write their names and read simple sight words on the first day of school, while other pupils may not even be able to recite the alphabet. Poor study habit, absenteeism, lack of interest and lack of support from parents to name a few were some of the problems that made our pupils performance in having difficulty in Phonetic Sound Recognition. With the implementation of the K-12 curriculum, expectations for student learning outcomes are even higher. Kindergarten is the place where the students learn letter and phonetic sounds. There are early reading programs especially in letter sound recognition to help the learners in phonemic awareness and sound letter relation.
Phonetic sound recognition and understanding letter sounds helps young children with beginning reading skills. Becoming fluent in letter recognition helps children to become more familiar and ease with the alphabet. It includes the ability to identify, hear, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words. Manipulating sounds in words includes blending, stretching, isolating, segmenting, deleting, and substituting. Children who demonstrate phonemic awareness in the beginning stages of learning to read are less likely to develop later reading achievement.
According to Tompkins, G. E. (2011), phonetic sound recognition encompasses many skills. It is defined as “the relationship between phonology (sounds in speech) and orthography (spelling patterns of written language)”. It refers to the matching of phonemes (smallest units of sound) with their respective graphemes (the written symbols in a language). Each grapheme is represented by a phoneme, yet some phonemes are represented by multiple graphemes. Some letters have more than one possible phoneme. It includes knowing letter names and their respective sounds. It also encompasses knowing how the graphemes relate to phonemes the English language. Sight words or knowing a word on sight is also a part of letter-sound recognition. Alphabet knowledge includes the ability to sound out and read new words that have not been encountered before. Morphological awareness falls under alphabet knowledge. Overall, It is absolutely essential in developing further literacy skills such as word recognition and phonics.
On the other hand, Fr. Bienvenido F. Nebres (2013), stated on his book that the reading ability of a big percentage of our student population in the Philippines especially in our school continues to be a serious concern. Statistics that report the number of non-readers in schools as well as the performance of students in the National Achievement Test (NAT) are quite depressing. The need for our elementary schools to classify the children as first readers, second readers and third readers or as children with difficulties in reading, word readers and phrase readers is an indication that there is a problem.
School Readiness Year-end Assessment (SReYA) is a yearly evaluation for kinder pupils held at Sixto Babao Elementary School. It aims to identify pupils in their learning’s based on the domains developed in the Kindergarten. It is a tool to be used as a reference by the Grade 1 teacher in assessing the strength and weak areas of the Kindergarten Pupils. Based on the result most of the pupils passed the test. Out of 50 pupils, only 45 gave the correct sound. It shows that it is 90% of the actual number of learners. The main thrust on the study is to find out which among the strategies could be used to improve the phonetic sound recognition among the preschoolers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District, Davao City. This research aims to improve the phonetic sound recognition skills of kindergarten pupils.
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the mean score of the three groups when exposed to teaching strategy in terms of guess the letter sound, ABC race, and Picture sound match?
2. What is the level of performance of students in understanding in phonetic sound recognition skills?
3. Is there significant difference in the performance of the student in understanding phonetic sound recognition when exposed to guess letter sound, ABC race, Picture sound match?
4. Is there significant differences in the performance of students in understanding the phonetic sound recognition?
5. What is the effect size of guess letter sound, ABC race, and picture sound match to the performance of students in understanding phonetic sound recognition?
For clarity purposes, the following terms were defined operationally:
Guess The Letter Sound is an approach where pupils are going to place all letters on the table face down. Each player turn the letter card and produce the sound.
ABC Race is a kind of game where the teacher will give a word that begins with each particular letter sound.
Picture Sound Match is another kind of game where students are going to match the letter of the sound that corresponds to the picture.
Phonetic Sound Recognition is the ability to hear, identify and manipulate individual sounds- phonemes- in spoken words. It is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differential meaning.
My study was designed to explore phonetic sound instruction at the kindergarten level. The respondents on the study were from the pupils of SBES. The random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Secondary data was administered before and after the intervention was introduced, the statistical deviation and one way ANOVA and eta Mean and Standard deviation were used in describing the level of performance pupils. Frequency counts the effect of instructional schemes of the performance of learners.
Based on the finding of the study, the following conclusion can be drawn:
1. The level of performance of students, in understanding in phonetic sound recognition skills.
2. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to teaching strategy in terms of guess letter sound, ABC race and picture sound match.
3. There is no specifically significant difference in the performance of student in understanding phonetic sound recognition when exposed to GAP strategy.
4. There is a significant differences in the three GAP teaching associated with the difference in performance of students in understanding the phonetic sound recognition.
5. The effect size of GAP strategy to the performance of students in understanding phonetic sound recognition.
GAP Approach is recommended to be adopted by the teachers of Sixto Babao Elementary School, Tibungco District, for SY 2015- 2016.