# LCP AND BASIC MULTIPLICATION SKILLS OF GRADE II LEARNERS

ARLENE J. AGUSTIN
Master Teacher II
Osmeña Elementary School

Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the effect of LCP in improving the basic multiplication skills of Grade Two students of Osmeña Elementary School. This action research involved learners in answering pre-test and post-test on basic multiplication. Descriptive Comparative research design was used. Statistical tools used were Mean, Standard Deviation, One-Way ANOVA and Eta-Squared. There was a significant difference with large effect on the implementation of L-Shaped Mask Approach in improving the basic multiplication skills of the learners. Based on the result of the study, the researcher recommends that the teacher should adapt the L-Shaped Mask Approach as it helped learners improve their basic multiplication skills.

Introduction
Mathematics is often thought of as a subject that a learner either understands or doesn’t, with little in between. In reality, mathematics encompasses a wide variety of skills and concepts. Although these skills and concepts are related and often build on one another, it is possible to master some and still struggle with others. For instance, a child who has difficulty with basic multiplication facts because he lacks interest to multiply and always think that multiplication is a difficult lesson. Focusing on “Big Ideas” when teaching math helps facilitate learner’s understanding by concentrating learner’s attention on key concepts and procedures.
We expect that our learners will quickly recall facts without the need for manipulatives or number strategies. Although memorization is a part of the process, we recognize that students benefit from varied opportunities to explore basic math facts before being asked to memorize them. An instructional approach in which learners investigate the meaning of facts through hands-on activities and thoughtful discussions, explore strategies to support their understanding of numbers, and then engage in strategic practice to memorize the facts provides learners with a strong and balanced foundation for mastery.
Understanding operations is fundamental to understanding math facts. Students develop deeper understanding of operations through problem posing, hands-on explorations, real world examples, classroom discussions, and exploring situations from children’s literature. Susan O’Connell and John SanGiovani (2011).
Math Big Ideas are key math concepts that can be continually used to teach a variety of math skills/processes. It provides referential starting points for learners when learning new math concepts/skills. In Focusing on “Big Ideas” when teaching math helps facilitate learner understanding by concentrating learner attention on key concepts and procedures. Using L shaped mask approach in a geoboard explain that the dots inside show the area.
Internationally, students frequently find multiplication tasks to be a stumbling block in their mathematical progress. Many use inefficient and inaccurate counting methods and encounter difficulties in memorizing tables Geary, (2004); Kilpatrick,Swafford, & Findell, (2001); Koscinski & Gast, (1993) and later in dealing with larger single digit operands Campbell & Graham, (1985); Steel & Funnell, (2001);Swan & Sparrow, (2000). Primary school children have stated they practice multiplication by writing down the series of numbers, by “looking at them, “reciting them and listening to tapes Steel & Funnell, (2001). Regrettably, if basic multiplication facts are not acquired during the primary school years, it is highly unlikely they will be practiced in a structured manner in secondary school Steel& Funnell,( 2001).
Philippines, in her march towards technological development, recognizes the importance of Mathematics in progress and development thus, making the subject compulsory in her educational system both in the primary and secondary levels.

However, Talisayon et al (1998) claimed that poor quality of Mathematics education is evident in the low scores obtained by Filipino students in standard tests at the national and international levels. This was precipitated by the low scores Filipino students got in national and international achievement tests, especially the Trends in International Mathematics Study TIMSS, (1995).
Most of the learners in Osmeňa Elementary School have difficulty in understanding the concept of multiplication. Majority of them hate numbers because they lack the ability to multiply. As the teacher explains the lesson, the learners lack interest to listen because learners always think that multiplication is a difficult lesson, thus this research. This was according to the class observation as regard to their multiplication ability. The purpose of this action research study is to help learners whether the choice of strategies improve students confidence and independence in learning Multiplication.
This study aims to find out the following effectiveness of LCP and Basic Multiplication Skills of Grade Two Learners.
1. What is the mean scores of the respondents when the implementation of the LCP?
2. What is the score of the respondents after the implementation of LCP?
3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of learners in Basic Multiplication Skills when expose to LCP?
4. Is there a significant difference in the three multiple instructional strategies associated with the difference in performance of learners in their Basic Multiplication Skills?
5. What is the effect size of LCP in improving the multiplication skills of Grade Two learners of Osmeňa Elementary School?

The following are the key term used in the study:
Multiplication is one of the four basic operations of elementary arithmetic and is commonly defined as repeated addition. It is an important tool in solving real-life problems and builds a firm foundation for proportional reasoning, algebraic thinking and higher-level math.
L-shaped mask Approach is a strategy used to count vertical and horizontal rows of dots inside the L-shaped mask. Explain that the dots inside show the area.
Classroom Discussion is an extended communication dealing with some particular topic happens in the classroom where the lesson takes place.
Peer Teaching is a complex process by which students learn from students that are more experienced and knowledgeable about the subject material.
Multiplication Skills is an expertise to calculate the result of repeated additions of two numbers.

Method
The study made use of Descriptive Comparative Research Design using the simple random technique. Data on the pre-test and posttest were gathered, recorded and analyzed to determine the effectiveness of LCP which was analyzed using the (SPSS) Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Student Version). The statistical tools used in the analysis of the data were One-Way ANOVA, Mean, Standard Deviation Tukey HSD Honestly Significant, Eta2 and Effect size.
A request letter was sent to the principal to conduct the study. The researcher administered the posttest after the implementation of LCP. Each method was applied to the different groups. Respondents of the study were the ninety Grade II learners of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District, Davao City Division of School Year 2015-2016.

Conclusion
The findings revealed in this study, to come up with the following conclusions:
1. The mean score of the three groups when exposed to LCP; L- Shaped Mask Approach, Classroom Discussion and Peer Teaching score is excellent.
2. The level of performance in understanding Basic Multiplication Skills of
learners was Very Satisfactory.
3. There is a significant difference in the performance of learners in
understanding Basic Multiplication skills when exposed to LCP.
4. There is a significant difference in LCP associated with the difference in
performance of students in understanding Basic Multiplication skills.
5. There is a large effect size of LCP to the Basic Multiplication skills of
Grade II learners of Osmeña Elementary School.

Recommendation
Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, L-Shaped Mask Approach is recommended to be adopted by the Grade Two teachers of Osmeña Elementary School, Tibungco District, for School Year 2015-2016.